Leucemia infantil aguda, ingesta de bebidas durante el embarazo y poliformismo metabólico

27-04-2017

El estudio busca analizar la asociación entre leucemia aguda en la infancia y el consumo de bebidas con cafeína durante el embarazo. Adicionalmente busca explorar la interacción entre consumo de bebidas con cafeína y bebidas alcohólicas y polimorfismos de las enzimas involucradas en el metabolismo de la cafeína y el alcohol. Los participantes se reclutaron de un estudio poblacional de casos y controles que estudia el rol de diferentes factores ambientales y genéticos en el cáncer infantil. Se incluyeron 764 casos de leucemia aguda y 1,681 controles en el periodo 2003-2004. Las madres fueron interrogadas mediante un cuestionario estructurado sobre sus hábitos de consumo durante el embarazo. Se genotipificaron alelos de 493 casos de LA y 549 controles con al menos dos abuelos nacidos en Europa. Los principales resultados muestran que el consumo regular de café durante el embarazo se asocia a leucemia aguda durante la infancia, con una razón de probabilidades de 1.2 [1.0-1.5], p=0.02. Esta razón aumenta linealmente con el consumo diario. La asociación fue más marcada para niños nacidos de madres no fumadoras, parece ser por el aumento en la eliminación de cafeína que produce el tabaco según concluyen los autores. La leucemia linfoblástica aguda también se asoció a toma de gaseosas cafeinadas. Por su parte, no se encontraron interacciones significativas entre genética y ambiente con café, té, gaseosas cafeinadas o consumo de alcohol.

Bonaventure, A., Rudant, J., Goujon-Bellec, S.,Orsi, L., Leverger, G., Baruchel, A., Bertrand, Y., et al.Childhood acute leukemia, maternal beverage intake during pregnancy, and metabolic polymorphisms. Cancer Causes Control 2013;24(4):783-793.

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