El café y el consumo de cafeína y el riesgo de cáncer de mama

27-04-2017

Esta revisión sistemática y meta-análisis se realizó con el objetivo de resumir la evidencia con respecto a estudios que avalúan la asociación entre el consumo de café y cafeína, y el riesgo de padecer cáncer de mama. Para la búsqueda se incluyó la base de datos PubMed y las referencias de los artículos obtenidos. Se determinó la homogeneidad de los resultados y se utilizó el modelo de efectos randomizados al encontrar heterogeneidad. Se exploró la relación dosis-respuesta mediante cubic spline model y meta-regresión multivariada de efectos randomizados. Se incluyeron 37 estudios en el meta-análisis. No se encontró una asociación significativa entre el riesgo de cáncer de mama y el consumo de café (RR=0.97, P=0.09), café descafeinado (RR=0.98, P=0.55) y cafeína (RR=0.99, P=0.73), respectivamente. Tampoco se observó una asociación significativa después de combinar café y cafeína (RR=0.97, P=0.09). Sin embargo, una asociación inversa entre el consumo conjunto de café y cafeína y el riesgo de cáncer de seno para mujeres postmenopáusicas (RR=0.94, P=0.02) fue observada. También, una asociación fuerte y significativa entre el consumo de café y el riesgo de cáncer de seno fue encontrada para portadores de la mutación BRCA1 (RR=0,69, P<0,01). Una relación linear de dosis-respuesta fue encontrada para el riesgo de cáncer de mama asociando el consumo de café/cafeína: el riesgo de cáncer de seno decreció en 2% (P=0,05) por cada incremento en dos tazas al día de consumo de café/cafeína, y 1%(P0.52) por cada incremento de 200 mg/día en consumo de cafeína, respectivamente. Se concluye que el consumo de café /cafeína podría estar débilmente relacionado con el riesgo de cáncer para mujeres posmenopáusicas, y la asociación entre portadores de la mutación BRCA1 merece mayor investigación.

Jiang W, Wu Y,  Jiang X. Coffee and caffeine intake and breast cancer risk: An updated dose–response meta-analysis of 37 published studies. Gynecologic Oncology 129 (2013) 620–629

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