La ingesta de cafeína materna durante el embarazo se asocia con el peso al nacer pero no con la longitud

28-04-2017

El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la asociación entre el consumo materno de cafeína y diferentes ocurrencias como la duración gestacional, el peso al nacer y el riesgo de presentar bajo peso al nacer (BPN). Se incluyeron 59.123 mujeres con embarazos sin complicaciones y partos únicos. El consumo de cafeína de diferentes alimentos fue reportado en las semanas gestacionales 17, 22 y 30. La principal fuente de cafeína fue el café. Únicamente la cafeína proveniente del café estuvo asociada con gestación prolongada (8h/100mg/día, P < 0,0000001). Ni la cafeína total, ni la cafeína del café estuvieron asociadas al riesgo de parto pretermino. El consumo de cafeína de diferentes fuentes medida a repetición durante el embarazo, estuvo asociado con menor peso al nacer (P < 0,0000000001). El consumo de cafeína de 200 a 300 mg/día incrementó las probabilidades de BPN (P< 0,00005), comparado con 0 a 50 mg/día. Estos hallazgos tienen implicaciones clínicas incluso para consumos de cafeína menores al máximo recomendado (200mg/día en los países nórdicos y EEUU, 300mg/día de acuerdo a la OMS), el cual estuvo asociado a un aumento del riesgo de presentar BPN.

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