Efectos del consumo de café en la hepatitis C crónica

28-04-2017

El consumo de café se ha asociado a una reducción en el riesgo de carcinoma hepatocelular en pacientes con hepatitis C crónica. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar los mecanismos mediante los cuales el café ejerce sus efectos protectores, en particular en términos del daño oxidativo en el ADN en relación a la inflamación hepática, la longitud de los telómeros, la fibrosis, apoptosis, angiogénesis y la carga viral. El estudio es un ensayo clínico aleatorizado tipo crossover. Cuarenta pacientes diagnosticados con hepatitis C crónica fueron aleatorizados en dos grupos: el primero consumía cuatro tazas de café al día por treinta días mientras que el segundo se mantenía abstinente. En el día treinta, los grupos se intercambiaban y recibían el tratamiento opuesto durante un segundo mes del estudio. Se encontró que los niveles de aminotransferasas (ALT y AST) eran menores en los pacientes que consumían 3-5 tazas (Grupo B) que en los que consumían 0-2 tazas al día (Grupo A) (56 ± 6 vs 74 ± 11/60 ± 3 vs73 ± 7 U/L p = 0.05/p = 0.04, respectivamente). Por su parte, los niveles de RNA del virus VHC fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo B [(6.2 ± 1.5) × 105 vs (3.9 ± 1.0) × 105 UI/mL, p = 0.05]. Durante la ingesta de café, los niveles de 8-hydroxideosiguanosina y colágeno fueron significativamente más bajos que durante la abstinencia. La longitud de los telómeros fue significativamente mayor durante la toma de café. En resumen, en hepatitis C crónica, el consumo de café induce una reducción en el daño oxidativo, que se relaciona con aumento en la longitud de los telómeros y apoptosis, y con mejor síntesis de colágeno, factores que probablemente median los efectos protectores del café sobre la progresión de la enfermedad.

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