El consumo habitual de café está inversamente asociado con biomarcadores relacionados con sindromes que involucran adiponectina

28-04-2017

El síndrome metabólico es una enfermedad de alto interés en salud pública. El estudio busca investigar la asociación entre consumo de café y biomarcadores relativos al síndrome metabólico en hombres sanos. La población a estudio fueron 364 hombres reclutados en Wakayama, Japón dentro de su lugar de trabajo. Se indagó por hábitos de vida incluyendo consumo de alcohol, consumo de cigarrillo y ejercicio diario mediante un cuestionario auto-diligenciado. Se midió grasa visceral y grasa subcutánea mediante tomografía axial computarizada y se midieron niveles de adiponectinas (bajo, medio y alto peso molecular). Las asociaciones entre consumo de café y biomarcadores para síndrome metabólico se evaluaron mediante dos modelos multivariados. El primer modelo ajustado por edad, consumo de alcohol, consumo de cigarrillo y ejercicio; y el segundo modelo con todos los anteriores además de ajustado por IMC. Los participantes se agruparon en dos grupos de acuerdo a su riesgo para síndrome metabólico (presión arterial alta, hemoglobina glicosilada elevada y niveles bajos de colesterol HDL). Los principales hallazgos corresponden a una asociación inversa entre el consumo bajo (1-3 tazas al día) y moderado (más de 4 tazas por día) de café con el área de grasa visceral y la tasa de grasa visceral/grasa subcutánea (p<0.0001). En el caso de los participantes con bajo riesgo de síndrome metabólico, el consumo moderado de café mostro asociaciones significativas con el nivel total de adiponectinas y adiponectinas de alto peso molecular (P<0.05) en ambos análisis. Por su parte, no se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre consumo de café y niveles de adiponectinas en los hombres con mayor riesgo de síndrome metabólico. En conclusión, el consumo habitual y moderado de café muestra una asociación inversa significativa con biomarcadores para síndrome metabólico. Esta asociación posiblemente se da a expensas de las adiponectinas que están inversamente relacionadas a la acumulación de grasa visceral.

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